I'm not sure that's a natural assumption to make; it could just as easily be an unexposed feature of some other key binding, or something in the train UI. Did to me, and Ive accidentally pressed g a hundred times and had the error message pop up, and after hours still didnt cross my mind that you can connect and disconnect cargo carriages. Ive been mining them up and moving hem that way D:. Climb into the one ahead of it, disconnect rolling stock V to disconnect, G to connect , drive it off.
Become a Redditor and subscribe to one of thousands of communities. Want to add to the discussion? Easier to Google these types of questions.
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Googling would still be quicker imo. Ive been mining them up and moving hem that way D: Next, jump into the one you want to stay, and disconnect it. But even in modern cars, Albert couplers get installed as emergency couplers for towing a faulty car. The link and pin was replaced in North American passenger car usage during the latter part of the 19th century by the assemblage known as the Miller Platform , which included a new coupler called the Miller Hook. The Miller Platform and hook coupler was used for several decades before being replaced by the Janney coupler.
Norwegian or meat chopper couplings consist of a central buffer with a mechanical hook that drops into a slot in the central buffer. The Norwegian coupler allows sharper curves than the buffer-and-chain, which is an advantage on those railways. On railway lines where rolling stock always points the same way, the mechanical hook may be provided only on one end of each wagon.
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Similarly, the hand brake handles may also be on one side of the wagons only. Not all Norwegian couplings are compatible with one another as they vary in height, width, and may or may not be limited to one hook at a time. Two versions of radial coupler were used in South Africa. One, the Johnston coupler, commonly known as a bell link-and-pin coupler, was introduced in and is similar in operation to and compatible with link-and-pin couplers, but bell-shaped with a circular coupler face.
The other, the bell-and-hook coupler, was introduced in and is similar to the Norwegian coupler , but also with a circular coupler face and with a coupler pocket which is open at the top of the coupler face to accommodate the drawhook.
All new Cape gauge locomotives and rolling stock acquired from were equipped with these or similar couplers, beginning with the CGR ST of , a construction locomotive named Little Bess. The first of these narrow gauge lines came into operation in , when the first NGR Class N T locomotives entered service on the Weenen branch out of Estcourt.
Coupling and uncoupling were done manually, which posed a high risk of serious injury or death to crew members, who had to go between moving vehicles to guide the link into the coupler pocket during coupling. Johnston couplers gradually began to be replaced on the South African Railways from , but not on narrow gauge rolling stock. All new Cape gauge locomotives and rolling stock acquired from that year were equipped with AAR knuckle couplers. Conversion of all older rolling stock was to take several years and both coupler types could still be seen on some vehicles into the late s.
During the transition period, knuckle couplers on many locomotives had a horizontal gap and a vertical hole in the knuckle itself to accommodate, respectively, a link and a pin, to enable it to couple to vehicles which were still equipped with the older Johnston couplers. The coupler is similar to the Norwegian coupler. It is a radial coupler with a coupler pocket which is open at the top of the coupling face. Instead of a link and pins, it makes use of a drawhook which, upon coupling, slides over the drawhook pin in the coupler of the next vehicle in the train.
To prevent the drawhook of the mating coupler from accidental uncoupling, the coupler bell is equipped with a drawhook guard, commonly known as a bridle, above the coupler pocket. Usual practice was to have a drawhook fitted to only one of the mating couplers and train crews therefore carried spare drawhooks and drawhook pins on the locomotive. While automatic coupling is possible, this rarely happens and manual assistance is required during coupling.
Railway coupling - Wikipedia
Uncoupling is done manually by lifting the drawhook by hand to release it. The coupler could be adapted to be compatible with the Johnston coupler by replacing the drawhook with a U-shaped adapter link, which was attached using the same drawhook pin. Bell-and-hook couplers began to be replaced on the Avontuur Railway upon the introduction of Class diesel-electric locomotives on the narrow gauge system in All new narrow gauge rolling stock acquired for that line from that year were equipped with Willison couplers. Older rolling stock were not converted and an adapter was used to enable coupling between the two types.
The drawhook on the bell-and-hook coupler would be replaced with the adapter, which was attached using the same drawhook pin. The knuckle coupler or Janney coupler was invented by Eli H. Janney , who received a patent in U. Janney was a dry goods clerk and former Confederate Army officer from Alexandria, Virginia , who used his lunch hours to whittle from wood an alternative to the link and pin coupler. The term buckeye comes from the nickname of the US state of Ohio , the "Buckeye State" and the Ohio Brass Company which originally marketed the coupling.
In , satisfied that an automatic coupler could meet the demands of commercial railroad operations and, at the same time, be manipulated safely, the United States Congress passed the Safety Appliance Act. Its success in promoting switchyard safety was stunning. That percentage fell as the railroads began to replace link and pin couplers with automatic couplers.
Coupler-related accidents dropped from nearly 11, in to just over 2, in , even though the number of railroad employees steadily increased during that decade. When the Janney coupler was chosen to be the North American standard, there were 8, patented alternatives to choose from. The only significant disadvantage of using the Janney design is that sometimes the drawheads need to be manually aligned.
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Many AAR coupler designs exist to accommodate requirements of various car designs, but all are required to have certain dimensions in common which allow for one design to couple to any other. Unicoupler has been developed by Knorr company from Germany in the s and is widely used in Iran in freight cars. This type of coupler is compatible with SA-3 and Willison couplers. The Unicoupler is also known as AK69e. The Unicoupler was the West-European development, it was developed in parallel with a compatible East-European counterpart, the Intermat coupler.
Unilink is a coupler compatible with SA3 and screw coupling, which is used e. Multi-function couplers MFCs are "fully automatic" couplers that make all connections between the rail vehicles mechanical, air brake, and electrical without human intervention, in contrast to autocouplers which just handle the mechanical aspects.
The majority of trains fitted with these types of couplers are multiple units, especially those used in mass transit operations. There are a few designs of fully automatic couplers in use worldwide, including the Scharfenberg coupler , various knuckle hybrids such as the Tightlock used in the UK , the Wedgelock coupling, Dellner couplings similar to Scharfenberg couplers in appearance , BSI coupling Bergische Stahl Industrie , now Faiveley Transport and the Schaku-Tomlinson Tightlock coupling.
There are a number of other automatic train couplings similar to the Scharfenberg coupler, but not necessarily compatible with it. Older US transit operators continue to use these non-Janney electro-pneumatic coupler designs and have used them for decades. The A ends of the cars typically have the Westinghouse coupler and the B ends use either a semi-permanent drawbar , or a Westinghouse coupler. The updated model N-2 with a larger 4-inch The model N-2 used lightweight draft gear slung below the center sill, to allow for the wide swings required to go around sharp curves. This made the N-2 unsuitable for main line railroad use so an updated version NA was developed for that market.
The Tomlinson coupler was developed by the Ohio Brass Company   for mass transit applications, but eventually found use in some mainline railroad vehicles as well. It consists of two squared metal hooks that engage with each other in a larger rectangular frame with air line connections above and below.
For applications outside of rapid transit the coupler had to be significantly enlarged to meet the increased strength requirements first appearing in this capacity on the Budd Metroliner and later on the Illinois Central Highliner fleet. Its relative lack of strength is one reason the N-Type has been more successful in the mainline railroad arena.
The Scharfenberg coupler  German: Scharfenbergkupplung or Schaku is probably the most commonly used type of fully automatic coupling. However, there is no standard for the placement of these electro-pneumatic connections. Some rail companies have them placed on the sides while others have them placed above the mechanical portion of the Schaku coupler.
Small air cylinders, acting on the rotating heads of the coupler, ensure the Schaku coupler engagement, making it unnecessary to use shock to get a good coupling. Rail equipment manufacturers such as Bombardier offer the Schaku coupler as an option on their mass transit systems and their passenger cars and locomotives. It also equips all the dedicated rolling stock used for the shuttle services in the Channel Tunnel. Due to the rush to dieselise and the number of different suppliers, the United Kingdom ended up with a variety of incompatible connections for multiple working.
The latter were categorised as yellow triangle, blue square, and so on. This has nothing to do with the physical connection of vehicles. Coupling codes, as they were known, became relevant only if multiple working of locomotives or multiple units was required. The Swedish-made Dellner coupling,  is a proprietary version of the Scharfenberg coupler , connecting vehicle, pneumatics and electronics at the same time. The patented energy absorption D-BOX technology allows coupling at speeds of up to 15 kilometres per hour 9.
It is the standard coupler type for all passenger trains in Japan as well as on commuter and subway trains in South Korea. Shinkansen bullet train rolling stock utilise a variation of the Shibata coupler developed by Sumitomo Metal Industries in the s which uses rotary tight-lock pins, and which coincidentally bears a closer resemblance to the Scharfenberg coupler rather than the Shibata coupler. The electrical connection block below the coupling mechanism is not used in North America. Schwab type coupler , Switzerland. Sometimes a wagon with one coupling system needs to be coupled to wagons with another coupling type This may be needed when taking metro rolling stock from its manufacturer to the city where it is to be used.
There are two solutions:. Only some kinds of couplings coexist on the end of a wagon at the same time, because amongst other reasons they need to be at the same height. For example, in the Australian state of Victoria , engines had the AAR coupler, with buffers, and the chain mounted on a lug cast into the AAR coupler. If a pair of match wagons is used, a rake of wagons using coupling A can be inserted into a train otherwise using coupling B. A coupling adaptor or compromise coupler might couple to an AAR coupling on a wagon, and present, for example, a meatchopper coupler or rapid transit coupler to the next wagon.
An adapter piece allows a Janney coupler mate with an SA3 coupler . Automatic couplers like the Janney are safer in a collision because they help prevent the carriages telescoping. British Rail therefore decided to adopt a Janney variant for its passenger carriages, with the coupler able to swing out of the way for coupling to engines with the traditional buffer and chain system. In New South Wales, sets of carriages were permanently coupled with a fixed bar , since the carriages were disconnected only at the workshops.
Freight cars are sometimes coupled in pairs or triplets, using bar couplings in between.
Articulated sets of carriages or wagons share the intermediate bogies , and have no need for couplings in the intermediate positions. Couplings are needed for any continuous braking systems. Electronically controlled pneumatic brakes ECP need a method of connecting electrically adjacent wagons, both for power and for command signals, and this can be done by plugs and sockets, or by very short range radio signals.
A draw gear also known as a draft gear is the assembly behind the coupling at each end of the wagon to take care of the compression and tension forces between the wagons of trains. Early draw gears were made of wood, which was gradually replaced by steel. Janney couplers have the draft gear in a centersill to absorb the pushing and pulling forces slack action.
There is also a draw gear behind tightlock couplers , SA3 couplers , C-AKv couplers , Scharfenberg couplers , and other multi-function couplers. In the case of buffers and chain couplers , the draw gear behind the hooks, if any, will absorb the tension, while the side buffers will absorb the compression.
On model railroads couplers vary according to scale, and have evolved over many years. Early model trains were coupled using various hook-and-loop arrangements, which were frequently asymmetrical, requiring all cars to be pointing in the same direction. In the larger scales, working scale or near-scale models of Janney couplers were quite common, but proved impractical in HO and smaller scales. For many years, the "X2F" or "Horn-Hook" coupler was quite common in HO scale , as it could be produced as a single piece of moulded plastic.